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History of India

History of India


1.Ancient India Studies 


categories :

1.Indian Kingdoms 

2.Mauryan Empire   

3.Deccan and South Indian Kingdoms  

4.Gupta Empire 

5.Southern dynasties in India

1.Indian kingdoms:

                 From their original settlements in the Punjab region, the Aryans gradually began to penetrate eastward, clearing dense forests and establishing "tribal" settlements along the Ganga & Yamuna ( Jamuna ) plains between 1500 and ca. 800 B.C. By around 500 B.C., most of northern India was inhabited and had been brought under cultivation, facilitating the increasing knowledge of the use of iron implements, including ox-drawn plows, and spurred by the growing population that provided voluntary and forced labor.

As riverine and inland trade flourished, many towns along the Ganga became centers of trade, culture, and luxurious living. Increasing population and surplus production provided the bases for the emergence of independent states with fluid territorial boundaries over which disputes frequently arose.

The rudimentary administrative system headed by tribal chieftains was transformed by a number of regional republics or hereditary monarchies that devised ways to appropriate revenue and to conscript labor for expanding the areas of settlement and agriculture farther east and south, beyond the Narmada River. These emergent states collected revenue through officials, maintained armies, and built new cities and highways. By 600 B.C., sixteen such territorial powers--including the Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, and Gandhara--stretched across the North India plains from modern-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh. The right of a king to his throne, no matter how it was gained, was usually legitimized through elaborate sacrifice rituals and genealogies concocted by priests who ascribed to the king divine or superhuman origins.

In the late twentieth century, these epics remain dear to the hearts of Hindus and are commonly read and enacted in many settings. In the 1980s and 1990s, Ram's story has been exploited by Hindu militants and politicians to gain power, and the much disputed Ramjanmabhumi, the birth site of Ram, has become an extremely sensitive communal issue, potentially pitting Hindu majority against Muslim minority (see Public Worship, ch. 3; Political Issues, ch. . Indian Kingdom page.Library of congress 1995.

2.Mauryan empire:


By the end of the sixth century B.C., India's northwest was integrated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire and became one of its satrapies. This integration marked the beginning of administrative contacts between Central Asia and India.

The Mauryan Empire :

Although Indian accounts to a large extent ignored Alexander the Great's Indus campaign in 326 B.C., Greek writers recorded their impressions of the general conditions prevailing in South Asia during this period. Thus, the year 326 B.C. provides the first clear and historically verifiable date in Indian history. A two-way cultural fusion between several Indo-Greek elements--especially in art, architecture, and coinage--occurred in the next several hundred years. North India's political landscape was transformed by the emergence of Magadha in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain. In 322 B.C., Magadha, under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya, began to assert its hegemony over neighboring areas. Chandragupta, who ruled from 324 to 301 B.C., was the architect of the first Indian imperial power--the Mauryan Empire (326-184 B.C.)--whose capital was Pataliputra, near modern-day Patna, in Bihar.
Situated on rich alluvial soil and near mineral deposits, especially iron, Magadha was at the center of bustling commerce and trade. The capital was a city of magnificent palaces, temples, a university, a library, gardens, and parks, as reported by Megasthenes, the third-century B.C. Greek historian and ambassador to the Mauryan court. Legend states that Chandragupta's success was due in large measure to his adviser Kautilya, the Brahman author of the Arthashastra (Science of Material Gain), a textbook that outlined governmental administration and political strategy. There was a highly centralized and hierarchical government with a large staff, which regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial arts, mining, vital statistics, welfare of foreigners, maintenance of public places including markets and temples, and prostitutes. A large standing army and a well-developed espionage system were maintained. The empire was divided into provinces, districts, and villages governed by a host of centrally appointed local officials, who replicated the functions of the central administration.
Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, ruled from 269 to 232 B.C. and was one of India's most illustrious rulers. Ashoka's inscriptions chiseled on rocks and stone pillars located at strategic locations throughout his empire--such as Lampaka (Laghman in modern Afghanistan), Mahastan (in modern Bangladesh), and Brahmagiri (in Karnataka)--constitute the second set of datable historical records. According to some of the inscriptions, in the aftermath of the carnage resulting from his campaign against the powerful kingdom of Kalinga (modern Orissa), Ashoka renounced bloodshed and pursued a policy of nonviolence or ahimsa, espousing a theory of rule by righteousness. His toleration for different religious beliefs and languages reflected the realities of India's regional pluralism although he personally seems to have followed Buddhism (see Buddhism, ch. 3). Early Buddhist stories assert that he convened a Buddhist council at his capital, regularly undertook tours within his realm, and sent Buddhist missionary ambassadors to Sri Lanka.

Contacts established with the Hellenistic world in The Mauryan Empire the reign of Ashoka's predecessors served him well. He sent diplomatic-cum-religious missions to the rulers of Syria, Macedonia, and Epirus, who learned about India's religious traditions, especially Buddhism. India's northwest retained many Persian cultural elements, which might explain Ashoka's rock inscriptions--such inscriptions were commonly associated with Persian rulers. Ashoka's Greek and Aramaic inscriptions found in Kandahar in Afghanistan may also reveal his desire to maintain ties with people outside of India.
After the disintegration of the Mauryan Empire in the second century B.C., South Asia became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries. India's unguarded northwestern border again attracted a series of invaders between 200 B.C. and A.D. 300. As the Aryans had done, the invaders became "Indianized" in the process of their conquest and settlement. Also, this period witnessed remarkable intellectual and artistic achievements inspired by cultural diffusion and syncretism. The Indo-Greeks, or the Bactrians, of the northwest contributed to the development of numismatics; they were followed by another group, the Shakas (or Scythians), from the steppes of Central Asia, who settled in western India. Still other nomadic people, the Yuezhi, who were forced out of the Inner Asian steppes of Mongolia, drove the Shakas out of northwestern India and established the Kushana Kingdom (first century B.C.-third century A.D.). The Kushana Kingdom controlled parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and in India the realm stretched from Purushapura (modern Peshawar, Pakistan) in the northwest, to Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) in the east, and to Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) in the south. For a short period, the kingdom reached still farther east, to Pataliputra. The Kushana Kingdom was the crucible of trade among the Indian, Persian, Chinese, and Roman empires and controlled a critical part of the legendary Silk Road. Kanishka, who reigned for two decades starting around A.D. 78, was the most noteworthy Kushana ruler. He converted to Buddhism and convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir. The Kushanas were patrons of Gandharan art, a synthesis between Greek and Indian styles, and Sanskrit literature. They initiated a new era called Shaka in A.D. 78, and their calendar, which was formally recognized by India for civil purposes starting on March 22, 1957, is still in use.

3.Deccan and sounthndian Kingdoms:

                                                       eccan Indian Kingdoms : During the Kushana Dynasty, an indigenous power, the Satavahana Kingdom (first century B.C.-third century A.D.), rose in the Deccan in southern India. The Satavahana, or Andhra, Kingdom was considerably influenced by the Mauryan political model, although power was decentralized in the hands of local chieftains, who used the symbols of Vedic religion and upheld the varnashramadharma . The rulers, however, were eclectic and patronized Buddhist monuments, such as those in Ellora (Maharashtra) and Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh). Thus, the Deccan served as a bridge through which politics, trade, and religious ideas could spread from the north to the south.

Farther south were three ancient Tamil kingdoms--Chera (on the west), Chola (on the east), and Pandya (in the south)--frequently involved in internecine warfare to gain regional supremacy. They are mentioned in Greek and Ashokan sources as lying at the fringes of the Mauryan Empire. A corpus of ancient Tamil literature, known as Sangam (academy) works, including Tolkappiam , a manual of Tamil grammar by Tolkappiyar, provides much useful information about their social life from 300 B.C. to A.D. 200. There is clear evidence of encroachment by Aryan traditions from the north into a predominantly indigenous Dravidian culture in transition.

Dravidian social order was based on different ecoregions rather than on the Aryan varna paradigm, although the Brahmans had a high status at a very early stage. Segments of society were characterized by matriarchy and matrilineal succession--which survived well into the nineteenth century--cross-cousin marriage, and strong regional identity. Tribal chieftains emerged as "kings" just as people moved from pastoralism toward agriculture, sustained by irrigation based on rivers, small-scale tanks (as man-made ponds are called in India) and wells, and brisk maritime trade with Rome and Southeast Asia.

Discoveries of Roman gold coins in various sites attest to extensive South Indian links with the outside world. As with Pataliputra in the northeast and Taxila in the northwest (in modern Pakistan), the city of Madurai, the Pandyan capital (in modern Tamil Nadu), was the center of intellectual and literary activities. Poets and bards assembled there under royal patronage at successive concourses and composed anthologies of poems, most of which have been lost. By the end of the first century B.C., South Asia was crisscrossed by overland trade routes, which facilitated the movements of Buddhist and Jain missionaries and other travelers and opened the area to a synthesis of many cultures (see Jainism, ch. 3). The Classical Age : Data 1995. Courtesy Library of Congress

4.Gupta empire:


                                                                                                                           :Gupta age - The Classical Age refers to the period when most of North India was reunited under the Gupta Empire (ca. A.D. 320-550). Because of the relative peace, law and order, and extensive cultural achievements during this period, it has been described as a "golden age" that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture with all its variety, contradiction, and synthesis. The golden age was confined to the north, and the classical patterns began to spread south only after the Gupta Empire had vanished from the historical scene.

The military exploits of the first three rulers--Chandragupta I (ca. 319-335), Samudragupta (ca. 335-376), and Chandragupta II (ca. 376-415)--brought all of North India under their leadership. From Pataliputra, their capital, they sought to retain political preeminence as much by pragmatism and judicious marriage alliances as by military strength.
Despite their self-conferred titles, their overlordship was threatened and by 500 ultimately ruined by the Hunas (a branch of the White Huns emanating from Central Asia), who were yet another group in the long succession of ethnically and culturally different outsiders drawn into India and then woven into the hybrid Indian fabric.

Under Harsha Vardhana (or Harsha, r. 606-47), North India was reunited briefly, but neither the Gupta Empire nor Harsha controlled a centralized state, and their administrative styles rested on the collaboration of regional and local officials for administering their rule rather than on centrally appointed personnel. The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule, but they also patronized Buddhism, which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy.

The most significant achievements of this period, however, were in religion, education, mathematics, art, and Sanskrit literature and drama.

The religion that later developed into modern Hinduism witnessed a crystallization of its components: major sectarian deities, image worship, devotionalism, and the importance of the temple.

Education included grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy. These subjects became highly specialized and reached an advanced level. The Indian numeral system--sometimes erroneously attributed to the Arabs, who took it from India to Europe where it replaced the Roman system--and the decimal system are Indian inventions of this period. Aryabhatta's expositions on astronomy in 499, moreover, gave calculations of the solar year and the shape and movement of astral bodies with remarkable accuracy. In medicine, Charaka and Sushruta wrote about a fully evolved system, resembling those of Hippocrates and Galen in Greece. Although progress in physiology and biology was hindered by religious injunctions against contact with dead bodies, which discouraged dissection and anatomy, Indian physicians excelled in pharmacopoeia, caesarean section, bone setting, and skin grafting (see Science and Technology, ch. 6).

The Southern Rivals

When Gupta disintegration was complete, the classical patterns of civilization continued to thrive not only in the middle Ganga Valley and the kingdoms that emerged on the heels of Gupta demise but also in the Deccan and in South India, which acquired a more prominent place in history. In fact, from the mid-seventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries, regionalism was the dominant theme of political or dynastic history of South Asia. Three features, as political scientist Radha Champakalakshmi has noted, commonly characterize the sociopolitical realities of this period. First, the spread of Brahmanical religions was a two-way process of Sanskritization of local cults and localization of Brahmanical social order. Second was the ascendancy of the Brahman priestly and landowning groups that later dominated regional institutions and political developments. Third, because of the seesawing of numerous dynasties that had a remarkable ability to survive perennial military attacks, regional kingdoms faced frequent defeats but seldom total annihilation.

Peninsular India was involved in an eighth-century tripartite power struggle among the Chalukyas (556-757) of Vatapi, the Pallavas (300-888) of Kanchipuram, and the Pandyas (seventh through the tenth centuries) of Madurai. The Chalukya rulers were overthrown by their subordinates, the Rashtrakutas, who ruled from 753 to 973. Although both the Pallava and Pandya kingdoms were enemies, the real struggle for political domination was between the Pallava and Chalukya realms.

Despite interregional conflicts, local autonomy was preserved to a far greater degree in the south where it had prevailed for centuries. The absence of a highly centralized government was associated with a corresponding local autonomy in the administration of villages and districts. Extensive and well-documented overland and maritime trade flourished with the Arabs on the west coast and with Southeast Asia. Trade facilitated cultural diffusion in Southeast Asia, where local elites selectively but willingly adopted Indian art, architecture, literature, and social customs.

The interdynastic rivalry and seasonal raids into each other's territory notwithstanding, the rulers in the Deccan and South India patronized all three religions--Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism. The religions vied with each other for royal favor, expressed in land grants but more importantly in the creation of monumental temples, which remain architectural wonders. The cave temples of Elephanta Island (near Bombay, or Mumbai in Marathi), Ajanta, and Ellora (in Maharashtra), and structural temples of Kanchipuram (in Tamil Nadu) are enduring legacies of otherwise warring regional rulers. By the mid-seventh century, Buddhism and Jainism began to decline as sectarian Hindu devotional cults of Shiva and Vishnu vigorously competed for popular support.

Although Sanskrit was the language of learning and theology in South India, as it was in the north, the growth of the bhakti (devotional) movements enhanced the crystallization of vernacular literature in all four major Dravidian languages: Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada; they often borrowed themes and vocabulary from Sanskrit but preserved much local cultural lore. Examples of Tamil literature include two major poems, Cilappatikaram (The Jewelled Anklet) and Manimekalai (The Jewelled Belt); the body of devotional literature of Shaivism and Vaishnavism--Hindu devotional movements; and the reworking of the Ramayana by Kamban in the twelfth century. A nationwide cultural synthesis had taken place with a minimum of common characteristics in the various regions of South Asia, but the process of cultural infusion and assimilation would continue to shape and influence India's history through the centuries. Gupta Empire page. Data as of September 1995.

5.Southern dynasties in india:

                             Southern Dynasties in India : The sultans' failure to hold securely the Deccan and South India resulted in the rise of competing southern dynasties: the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527) and the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1565). Zafar Khan, a former provincial governor under the Tughluqs, revolted against his Turkic overlord and proclaimed himself sultan, taking the title Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in 1347. The Bahmani Sultanate, located in the northern Deccan, lasted for almost two centuries, until it fragmented into five smaller states in 1527. The Bahmani Sultanate adopted the patterns established by the Delhi overlords in tax collection and administration, but its downfall was caused in large measure by the competition and hatred between deccani (domiciled Muslim immigrants and local converts) and paradesi (foreigners or officials in temporary service). The Bahmani Sultanate initiated a process of cultural synthesis visible in Hyderabad, where cultural flowering is still expressed in vigorous schools of deccani architecture and painting.

Southern Dynasties in India :

Founded in 1336, the empire of Vijayanagar (named for its capital Vijayanagar, "City of Victory," in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest. Vijayanagar rulers closely followed Chola precedents, especially in collecting agricultural and trade revenues, in giving encouragement to commercial guilds, and in honoring temples with lavish endowments. Added revenue needed for waging war against the Bahmani sultans was raised by introducing a set of taxes on commercial enterprises, professions, and industries. Political rivalry between the Bahmani and the Vijayanagar rulers involved control over the Krishna-Tunghabadhra river basin, which shifted hands depending on whose military was superior at any given time. The Vijayanagar rulers' capacity for gaining victory over their enemies was contingent on ensuring a constant supply of horses--initially through Arab traders but later through the Portuguese--and maintaining internal roads and communication networks. Merchant guilds enjoyed a wide sphere of operation and were able to offset the power of landlords and Brahmans in court politics. Commerce and shipping eventually passed largely into the hands of foreigners, and special facilities and tax concessions were provided for them by the ruler. Arabs and Portuguese competed for influence and control of west coast ports, and, in 1510, Goa passed into Portuguese possession.

The city of Vijayanagar itself contained numerous temples with rich ornamentation, especially the gateways, and a cluster of shrines for the deities. Most prominent among the temples was the one dedicated to Virupaksha, a manifestation of Shiva, the patron-deity of the Vijayanagar rulers. Temples continued to be the nuclei of diverse cultural and intellectual activities, but these activities were based more on tradition than on contemporary political realities. (However, the first Vijayanagar ruler--Harihara I--was a Hindu who converted to Islam and then reconverted to Hinduism for political expediency.) The temples sponsored no intellectual exchange with Islamic theologians because Muslims were generally assigned to an "impure" status and were thus excluded from entering temples. When the five rulers of what was once the Bahmani Sultanate combined their forces and attacked Vijayanagar in 1565, the empire crumbled at the Battle of Talikot.

2.Medieval India:

1.Dhelhi sultanate
3.Kingdom of south
4.Europeans in India
                                                                                                                                                                            1.Delhi Sultanate

This section covers

1) The Muslim period of Indian history beginning with the Turkish conquests under Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Ghori.

2) The Slave dynasty established under Qutub-ud-din Aibek and Iltumish.

3)  Khilji dynasty established by Allauddin Khilji.

4) The Tughluq dynasty which gained ground under Muhammed - bin- Tughluq and Feroz Shah. 

5) Saiyyids and the Lodhi's established themselves in northern India before the Mughals.

6) Bahmani Dynasty

7) Other Dynasties including Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar, Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur, Qutab Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda.


1) Rise of Mughal power under Babur and the Sur Dynasty of Sher Shah.

2) The golden age of Mughal empire under Akbar and reign of his successors.

3) The independent kingdoms of the Sayyids, the Avadh, the Rajput and Jat, the Sikhs, the Marathas, Hyderabad, Carnatic and Mysore. These kingdoms dominated over various regions before the advent of the Europeans. 

3.Kingdoms of South

1) The history of South India which represented a separate entity till the medieval period with -the Kalchuris of Chedi, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Yadhavas of Devgiri, the Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra, the Pallavas, the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras.

2) Vijayanagar Kingdom  

4.Europeans in India

  1. The Portuguese and the Dutch
  2. The English East India Company
  3. The French East India Company.
  4. Battle of Plassey and Buxar


1.Dhelhi sultnate:



The Turkish Conquest
The Muslim conquest of India from 1175 to 1340 AD. The causes for their conquest though various, the major reason was the spread of Islam.  The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sindh, before intruding in to India. The first attempt to enter the Indian territory was determined by the circumstances leading  to the invasion of Sindh. The  wealth in India lured the Muslim rulers. Further the inter-rivalry between the kingdoms in India  paved the way for their entry in to India. The immediate cause of Muslim intervention is said to be plundering of some ships which carried costly gifts from the king of Ceylon for the Khalifa, near the port of Debal by sea pirates. The Hindu ruler of the Sindh, Raja Dahir was asked to compensate for this by the Governor of Iraq. The refusal to comply with this demand for the reason that the port was not under his control infuriated the Governor who sent two expeditions to defeat the  Raja . But both the attempts  to defeat the Raja failed. This further infuriated the governor who sent his son-in law Muhammad-bin-Qasim in 711AD with a large army to conquer Sindh. In 712 AD Raja Dahir was defeated and put to death. Sindh, Multan  and Kannauj were conquered.

The next invasion by the Turks who opposed the authority of the Khalifas was by Alaptagin. He had established himself in Khorasan and extended upto Kabul and Ghazni. He was succeeded by one of his slave Sabuktagin. In 986 AD he came into conflict with Raja Jaipal of Bathinda. In 991 AD Raja Jaipal allied with other Hindu king including Rajyapala the Prathira king of Kannauj and Dhanga the ruler of the distant Chandela kingdom to avenge his defeat. The allies were defeated , Peshwar and Kurram valley came under Muslim influence.

Mahmud of Ghazni
The elder son of Sabuktagin, Mahmud of Ghazni assumed the throne in 997 AD. He was very conscious of the wealth he could achieve from further conquests into India. He was also a religious fanatic who aimed to spread Islam. At the eve of Mahmud's invasion there existed no strong power to confront  his military might. There existed numerous kingdoms who were involved in quarrelling and fighting with each other. Mahmud is said to have invaded India seventeen times. His first raid dates to 1001 AD. In course of his second expedition he defeated Jaipal. In 1004 AD he invaded and captured Bhera. In 1006 AD he captured Multan. In 1008 AD he invaded again and captured Multan. Anandapal, the son of Jaipal continued the struggle against Mahmud . Having allied with the ruler of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer he posed a serious threat to Mahmud's army. But unfortunately Anandapal had to ceed to the Muslim army.

In 1009AD Mahmud attacked the fortress of Kangra or Bhimnagar and accumulated vast treasures. In 1013AD Mahmud reduced the honour of the Hindushahi Kingdom by their defeat. In the year 1014AD Mahmud invaded Thaneshwar and acquired more wealth from the temples. In 1018 Mahmud led an expedition against Kannauj and succeeded its ruler's willingness to convert to Islam. Mathura was also invaded and its magnificient temple was burnt. In 1021-22 AD Mahmud invaded Gwalior, Kashmir and Lahore. The ruler of Kalinjar and Gwalior combined and invaded Kannauj and killed its ruler Rajayapala. In the conflict that resulted Mahmud looted the wealth of Kalinjar and went back to Ghazni.

In 1025AD Mahmud invaded Somnath and looted its temple on the coast of Saurashtra or Kathiwar. Enormous treasure of the fortified temple was looted. In 1026AD he invaded Punjab. His last invasion was in about 1027 AD. He died in 1030AD.

The invasion of Mahmud opened the way for the future Muslim adventures in India. The repeated success of Mahmud was an eye opener for the Muslim thirst for consolidating themselves politically, economically and to promote their religious outlook. The status of Ghazni grew to a big empire. The next important Muslim ruler who had made hisi nfluence in Indian history known was Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. The Ghurs who originally belonged to Persia. After the downfall of the rule of Ghazni in the 12th century. The credit for the destruction of Ghazni goes to Alauddin. Ghiyas-ud-din of Ghur wrested Ghazni from the Turks and gave the power of consolidating the empire to his brother Sahabuddin. He was known as Mohammad Ghori. 

Mohammad Ghori
Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD.  In 1178 he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him in 1178 AD.In 1179 he conquered Peshwar and annexed Lahore. In 1186 AD Mohammad Ghori deposed Khusru Malik, the last prince in the generation of Sabuktgin and Mahmud and after occupying Punjab kept himself in a strong position in the Indus region.

In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Here unlike the separate independent forces which Mohammad met in his previous campaigns. He had to face combined armies of Prithviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer and Delhi. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battle-field.

In the very next year in 1192 AD  both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly out did Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The gateway to Delhi was opened.

In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded and defeated the ruler of Kannauj. He occupied Benares. Mohammad Ghori had left Qutab-ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. In 1193 Qutab-ud-din Aibek occupied Delhi and he joined Mohammad Ghori's invasion on Kannauj whose ruler Jaichand was defeated and killed. Gwallior and Anhilwara the capital of Gujarat besides Ajmer was also occupied by 1197 AD. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Bihar in 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202AD Muhammad Khilji brought Lakshmana Sena the ruler of Bengal under his authority. In 1203 Qutab-ud-din Aibek conquered Bundelkhand. Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD.



Qutab-ud-din Aibek
Qutab-ud-din Aibek established himself as the sultan of Delhi at Lahore. He strengthened his position through matrimonial alliances with his rivals. He gave his daughter to Iltumish the foremost of his slaves. Qutab-ud-din died in 1210AD. He had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the Slave dynasty in 1206AD.

After Qutab-ud-din his son Aram Shah succedded to his throne. He was not able to display the skill of conquests and administration shone by his forerunners. This had demanded Iltumish to take charge of the situation as desired by the nobles too. A battle followed in which Aram Shah was defeated and killed. In 1211 AD Iltumish came to the throne. He was also known as Shams-ud-din. He spent his days in retriving the lost territories of Qutab-ud-din, and also added Malwa and Sind. During the reign of Iltumish he fought against the rival slave chiefs Yildiz and Qabacha. His attempts to appease Yildiz diplomatically to accept his authority gave time to prepare himself. At the battlefield of Tarain both of them met and Yildiz was defeated.

Another important problem faced by Iltumish was the Mongols led by Chingiz Khan. In his diplomatic decision he avoided a conflict with the might Mongol by preventing Jalad-ud-din the ruler of Khawarism from coming to India. Iltumish defeated his rival slave chieftain Qabacha and captured both Multan and Sindh. After this he made Ghias ud-din ceed to the supremacy of Iltumish. Later, he defeated Ghias-ud-din  who revolted ,and conquered his territories of Bengal and Bihar. Another major threat to the power of Iltumish was the independent Rajput rulers who inspite of their rivalry could pose a serious danger to the Sultanate. On 1226 AD he attacked Ranthambor and Mansor. He also occupied Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor. In 1229 Gwalior was was occupied and the fort of Kalinjar was plundered. Kannauj, Banaras and Badaun were under his dominion. In the year 1229 AD the Caliph of Bagdad recognised him as Sultan. This bestowed upon him the power to nominate his successors.

 Iltumish was also a patron of art and learning. His completion of the Qutab Minar proves him to be a man of good architectural skills and tastes besides striving adequately for promoting his religion. Iltumish was succeeded by his son Rukn-ud-din Feroze who came to the throne as desired by the nobles even though Iltumish had nominated his daughter Razia to the throne. Rukn-ud-din did not prove to be a competent ruler and he left his duty of administration to his mother Shah Turkan. The unpopular rule that followed led to revolts by several governors of various provinces. Finally Rukn-ud-din and his mother Shah Turkan were murdered and the throne was succeeded by Razia Begum who ruled from 1236 AD to1240 AD. She had accomplished the major task of subduing the revolting governors and the bringing the territories under her control. She married Altunia the governor of Bhatinda. In 1240 AD the Turkish nobles deposed her and declared. Bahram Shah as their ruler, and both Razia and Altunia was killed. Bahram Shah was a mere puppet in the hands of the nobles. He was succeeded by Masud Shah ,a nephew of Razia Begum. Owing to his inability the nobles displaced him with Nasir-uddin Mahmud the youngest son of Iltumish. He was in power for twenty five years. The affairs of the state was left to his father-in-law and minister Ulugh Khan Balban. After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in 1226 AD the power was taken over by Balban. 

As a minister during the time of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Balban had accomplished himself as an able administrator. His ideas of diplomacy and suppression of revolts with an iron hand helped him in establishing a strong rule in the history of the slave dynasty. As a minister he put down the revolting rajputs, the khokars, and the rulers of the Doab region. Ramthambhor, Gwalior, Chanderi and Malwa came under his rule. He was able to quell the power of Mewatis in 1259 AD.He firmly resolved the rivalry among the 'Fourty slaves' whose decision was the final word of the dynasty. They plotted against Balban with the help of the Sultan. But this resulted in Chaos which forced the Sultan to call back Balban. To ensure the kingdom's safety against the invading Mongols he built forts on the borders and stationed a strong army. In 1258 AD and 1259 AD Balban led campaigns against the Rajputs of the Doab and Meos of Delhi. During his early days of rule of Balban,   he pursued the suppression of the Meos. He brought order in Rohilkhand. He suppressed the revolt of Tughril Khan, the governor of Bengal. Balban died in 1287 AD. His achievements besides the consolidation of the slave kingdom include his contribution to increase the power and importance of the ruler. He had brought various code of conduct in his court that involved even the manner of dressing and addressing. He reorganised his army with equipments and stationed them in forts at vulnerable places of foreign intrusion. He paid them well in cash besides appointing governors to supervise the activities of the army. 

His administration was strongly based on his military power. Enforcement of decision and disposition of justice with a competent spy system kept him informed of the activities of every one in his kingdom. He maintained a strict attitude towards the Hindus and kept them under strong suppression with the help of his military power. He was undoubtedly the greatest of the military rulers of the Slave dynasty. He was to be succeeded by Kai Khasrau, but a diplomatic gamble brought Qaigabad the son of Bulhara Khan the governor of Bengal to the throne. He was a grandson of Balban. Aged eighteen. Qaigabad turned a blind eye to the affairs of the state. He was disposed off by the nobles bringing his three year old son to the throne. 

Another series of uprisings and revolts started amongst the nobles, many of them declaring independence thus unleasing a state of confusion. This was the period when Jalaluddin Khilji of the Khilji tribe who was placed on the throne by the nobles brought a new rule to follow under the name of the Khilji dynasty. The rule of this dynasty started in 1290 AD and continued till 1340 AD.

            Alauddin Khilji
After coming to the throne of the Khilji dynasty Jalal-ud-din expanded the boundaries of his empire. Besides this his achievements include suppression of the revolt of Malik Chhaju with the governor of Qudh. He suppressed the 'Thuggees' a band of robbers and send them off peacefully to Bengal. It was during the conquest of Bhilsa that Ala-ud-din the nephew of Jalal-ud-din started realising the dream of being Sultan. In 1292 AD Alauddin led an expedition to Devagiri hearing of its wealth. Devagiri was forced to pay a huge war indemnity. This helped Alauddin in buying the nobles and pleasing the soldiers who were disatisfied by the rule of Jala-ud-din. Alauddin then hatched a conspiracy and got  Sultan Jala-lud din killed and proclaimed himself as the Sultan. In the year 1296 AD Alauddin became the Sultan, after Malika Jan the widow of Jalal-ud-din and her younger son Qadin Khan left Delhi. In 1297 AD Alauddin Khilji set off for conquering Gujarat. The Raja of Gujarat took shelter in Devagiri where Nusrat Khan an Ulugh Khan pursued them and looted. Here Nusrat Khan purchased a Hindu slave called Malik Kafur who in due course helped Alauddin Khilji in his future conquests. In 1301 Ramthambhor was captured and the Rajput Hamir Deva was murdered. In 1303 he conquered Chittor killing Rana Rattan Singh. His queen Rani Padmini with the other women committed Jauhar.

In 1305 Alauddin Khilji captured Malwa and annexed Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi. Allauddin Khilji's expedition to Bengal was not successful and it remained independent. 

In 1308, Allauddin led an expedition to capture a fort in Sivana, Rajasthan. In 1311AD Allauddin set off on the Jalor expedition. Thus he almost completed his conquests of North. Allauddin now set out to conquer the south  lured by the wealth of Devagiri.Being the first to have thought of venturing to the south this region could be a source of revenue for him. In this adventure of his, Malik Kafur his slave who in course of time turned to be an able commander contributed greatly.Allauddin had already invaded Devagiri in the year 1294 AD and had reconciled for the condition that a tribute would be paid. Malik Kafur led the operation . A huge war indemnity was paid and a tribute offered. In 1310 AD Malik Kafur was sent to invade the Hoyasala kingdom of Dwarasamudra. The ruler conceded  to his demands and further assisted Malik Kafur in his quest against the Pandya kingdom.In 1311AD Malik Kafur went on an expedition to the Pandya kingdom which had its capital at Madurai. Malik Kafur came out successful. In 1313 AD Allauddin set out on Devagiri and annexed it to Delhi. During the rule of Allauddin Khilji, the Mongols invaded the country several times. The first invasion came during the period of 1297 AD. The forces of Sultan successfully repulsed this invasion .

In 1298 AD Saldi's invasion was neutralized by Zafar Khan thus increasing his prestige. In 1299 AD Qutlugh Khwaja invaded India for the third time. A fierce battle was the result involving Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan and Alagh Khan. The Mongols were routed but it cost the life of Zafar Khan. In the year 1303 AD under the leader ship of Targhi another mongol invasion was carried out. From this invasion Allauddin Khilji learnt the lessons of keeping himself prepared, not only with a strong army but by fortifying and organizing his armed forces.  In 1305 AD the Mongols led by Ali Beg and Tartaq invaded India but were brutally defeated. The last of the mongol invasion was the under the leadership of Kubak and Iqbamand. Even this invasion was successfully met by Allauddin Khilji.

 In his later days Allauddin had to face many troubles. Malik Kafur influenced all his actions. He met with his death in the year 1316 AD. An infant son of the Sultan was placed on the throne and he acted as the regent. Malik Kafur imprisoned, blinded and killed other members of the royal family. But Malik Kafur was murdered, and Mubarak Khan the third son of Alauddin Khilji became the regent. He then imprisoned Sahib uddin and ascended the throne as Qutb-ud-din Mubarak in the year 1316 AD. The rule of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak was an utter failure owing to his liberal administration and luxurious life style. Above all he was under the influence of youth called Hassan who later was called Khusru Khan. The misdoings of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak led to his death at the hands of Khusru Khan. The death of Mubarak sealed the fate of the Khilji dynasty. Khusru who came to the throne after Qutbuddin Mubarak was not favoured by the Turkish nobles. He was killed by a  Qaraunak Turk noble, Ghazi Malik Tughluq. This paved the way for the foundation of a new dynasty called the Tughluq dynasty.





Muhammad-bin Tughluq
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq also known as Tughluq Shah was appointed as the governor of Dipalpor in Punjab by Allauddin Khilji. The rule of Ghiyjas-ud-din Tughluq includes the suppression of the revolt at Warangal. Pratap Rudradeva of Warangal had accepted overlordship of Allauddin Khilji and agreed to pay tribute annually. After the death of Allauddin Khilji he neglected this. Ghiyas-ud-din sent his son Juna Khan to conquer Warrangal. In 1323 AD Rudra Pratap Deva was defeated. Warangal was renamed as Sultanpur and annexed to Delhi.  Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq came to the throne in 1325 AD. The rule of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq includes various reforms. The first of these reforms included his attempt to consolidate his empire by curbing the rebellions of 1327 AD by his cousin Baha-ud-din Garsharp in the Deccan and the other of Kishulu Khan, the governor of Multan and Sind in 1328AD.

Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's experiments with his ideas of administration are noteworthy. The transfer of his capital from Delhi to Daulatbad earlier known as Devagiri. This transfer of capital involved the shifting of the army, officials, servants, tradesman, court and shift of population. This was a torture of the people who suffered greatly. The introduction of token currency brought discredit to his rule. The rampant circulation of copper coin and withdrawal of silver and gold coins brought down the value of currency. Copper coins lost its value. To overcome this the Sultan ordered exchange of silver coins for copper coins. Thus people got silver coins in abundance and copper coins were in heaps. The taxation in Doab which resulted out of the conditions of an empty treasury and the scheme which was implemented in a wayward manner made it a failure. The conquest of Khorasan which required a strong army and later disbanding it was an act of instability.

Muhammad bin Tughluq's engagements with his domestic affairs made him turn a blind eye to the Mongols who made use of his opportunity and invaded India in 1328 AD. The shifting of the capital from Delhi to Devagiri also proved advantageous to the Mongols, as they prepared for more conquests. The Sultan's ambitions plan of invading Himachal and the devastationof his army owing to inhospitable climatewas another blunder by Mohammed-bin -Tughluq.   An attempt to capture Malabar in 1335 AD failed owing to the spread of Cholera in the army. In1338 Fakhruddin Mubarak of Bengal declared himself independent. In 1340 the Governor of Gujarat declared himself independent. The Sultan faced problems from the Afghans  led by Hasan Gangu . In 1350 AD the province of Gujarat revolted and under Taghi. Pursuing the enemy to inflict punishment, unfortunated Mohammed bin-Tughluq died out of illness. He was succeeded by his cousin Feroz Tughlug who was delivered of a Rajput mother.

Feroze Tughlaq
Feroze Tughlaq became the Sultan in the year 1351 AD. Though the throne was a long dream of many. Feroz Tughlak did not contribute much to expand the territories of the empire which he inherited. His military weakness resulted in the loss of his territories. He failed in his attempt to regain Bengal. In 1360 he invaded Jajnagar to destroy the Jagan nath Puri temple. In 1326 AD he met with success in his expedition to Sindh, before this he had led an invasion Nagarkot with an idea to destroy the Jwalamukhi temples. The Sultan was not  tolerant towards people with different religion. He reintroduced the Jagirdari system which was abolished by Alauddin Khilji's. All these measures brought a good result in the financial status of the empire. Feroz Tughluq also introduced reforms in the field of irrigation. He constructed dams, tanks and well and besides these also constructed buildings with architectural skill. This shows his awareness about public utility. Feroze Tughluq also patronized learning. He reformed the currency system. All these proves that he was the cast of the capable Tughluqs. After him the dynasty began to disintegrate. He was immediately succeeded by Ghias- uddin Tughlaq-II who ruled from 1388-1389 AD. He was murdered in 1389 AD and was succeeded by Abu Baker. In a struggle that followed between him and one of the sons of Feroze Tughlaq Abu Baker was defeated. The younger son of Feroze Tughluq. Nasir ud-din Muhammad ruled from 1390-1394 AD. He died in 1394 AD and was succeeded by Humayun. After his death in 1395 the Tughluq dynasty saw the last Tughluq ruler Mahmud Nasir-uddin. He ruled from 1395-1413 AD. The invasion of Timur sealed the fate of the Tughluq dynasty.

After the Tughluk dynasty Indian history witnessed the rule of the Saiyyids and the Lodis. The foundation  of these two kingdoms was on the rubbles of the Tughluq's which was grazed to the ground as a result of Timur's invasion. Timur was a Barlas Turk. Born in 1336 AD he grew up with a military skill that made him a military genius. He attained the throne of Samargand in 1369 AD. With a zeal of conquering distant lands he set out and conquered several central Asian territories before turning towards India. With an ambition to possess a large territory, besides acquiring enough wealth and with an awareness about the disintegrating Delhi Sultanate he invaded beyond the Indus with a powerful army. Timur's grandson Pir Muhammad had conquered Multan, Ulch, Pakpatan and Dipal-pur. Both proceeded towards Delhi and defeated Sultan Muhammad Shah. He then conquered Meerut and Haridwar. Besides conquering these territories he looted the wealth of the temples. He nominated Khizr Khan as his governor in India. Thus the political stability of the country was disrupted and the condition that prevailed then ultimately resulted in the downfall of the Tughlaqs.

 The Saiyyid dynasty
Then came the Saiyyid dynasty founded by Khizr Khan. The Sayyids ruled from about 1414 AD to 1450 AD. At a time when the provinces were declaring themselves independent the first task of Khizr Khan was the suppression of the revolts. In 1412 AD he conquered Gujarat, Gwalior and Jaunpur. In 1416 he defeated Bayana and in 1421AD he attacked Mewat. Due to illness he died in the year 1421 AD. He was succeeded by Mubarak Shah who succeeded in suppressing the revolts against him In a conspiracy against him he was killed by him opponents in 1434 AD. After him Muhammad-bin-Farid came to the throne. During his reign there was confusion and revolts. The empire came to an end in 1451 AD with his death. 

The Lodhi dynasty

Behlol Lodhi who was in service during Khizr Khan founded the Lodhi dynasty. Behlol Lodhi was an Afghan of the Lodi tribe. He became the governor of Punjab and was proclaimed the Sultan in 1451AD. After coming to the throne he quelled the rebelling nobles and Jagirdars. He gave jagirs to the Afghan nobles to win their cooperation, and brought Mewar, Sambal and Gwalior under his rule. 

Behlol Lodhi nominated his son Nizam Khan as his successor. But the nobles placed Barbak Shah on the throne. In the struggle that ensured Nizam Khan was successful and ascended the throne as Sikandar Lodi. He proved to be a capable ruler who brought back the lost prestige of the Sultan. He maintained friendly relations with the neighbouring states. Sikandar Lodi settled his differences with his uncle Alam Khan who conspired against him. He also defeated Barbak Shah who in co-operation with Hussain Shah of Jaunpur fought against him. Barbak Shah was appointed the governor of Jaunpur. He brought Gwalior and Bihar under his rule. Though he was a religious fanatic yet he brought changes in some of the practices of the Muslims. He encouraged education and  trade. His military skill helped him in bringing the Afghan nobles under his control.

Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodi who is said to have been the last great ruler of the Lodi dynasty. He came to the throne in 1517 AD. The nobles brought his younger brother Jalal Khan as the ruler of Jaunpur. The nobles who wanted division of the empire into two created problems of Ibrahim Lodi. He defeated Jalal Khan in a battle. He conquered Gwalior, and came into conflict with Rana Sanga the ruler of Mewar who defeated him twice. His relations with the Afghan nobles became worse and this led to several conflicts with him. The discontented Afghan chiefs sent Daulal Khan Lodi to invite Babur the ruler of Kabul to India. After many incursions in the year 1525 and1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat. With this defeat the Delhi Sultanate was laid to rest.

The History of India added a new outlook with the coming of Babur. This was the beginning of a rule that is recorded as the medieval history of India.

THE MUGHAL RULE ( 1526-1707)

Babur was also called Zahir-ud-din Mohammad and was related closely to both Chingiz Khan and Timur. At an early age of 12 he became the king of Farghana. He was nourished militarily by the experiences he had from facing the enemies who plotted against him. In 1497 AD Babur captured Samarkand. His ministers pronounced him dead and put his younger brother on the throne. He failed in his attempt to recover Farghana. On his venture to retrive Farghana his cousin Ali usurped his authority over Samarakhand. Babur now was kingdom less. Regions  under the influence of Babur In 1499 AD he was able to capture Farghana. In his early days of succession he had to face many oppositions. In 1497AD Babur captured Samarkand but lost Farghana. In 1498AD Babur lost both Samarkand and Fargana. In 1499AD he regained Farghana and in 1500 AD Samarkand was reconquered the second time. Babur set put for Kabul and occupied it in 1504 AD and ruled till 1526 AD during which he conquered Qandhar and Herat. His attempt to conquer Samarkand which he lost in 1502 AD failed and he turned towards India on a fresh venture. The conditions that prevailed in India at that juncture invited him to set out to conquer India. By 1524 AD he had brought Lahore under his sway. From Lahore he marched to Delhi where he was met by Ibrahim Lodi on the battle field of Panipat. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated owing to the superior artillery of Babur. Babur then sent his forces to occupy Delhi and Agra. Thus started the rule of the Chaghtai Turks who ruled under the name of Mughals.

On beginning his rule in India Babur had to face the problems of the Rajputs and the Afghan chiefs. He battled Rana Sanga of Mewar in 1527 AD in the battle of Kanwah. Rana lost the battle. The defeat of Rana Sanga shook the power of the Rajputs. In 1528 AD Babur attacked Chanderi which was held by Medini Rai and captured it. In the year 1529 AD. Babur marched against Mahmud Lodi a brother of Ibrahim Lodi and the battle of Ghagra followed which resulted in the defeat of the Lodis. 

By then Babur's empire extended from Bhera and Lahore to Bahraich and Bihar and from Sialkot to Ranthambhor.

Babur died in 1530 AD. He was succeeded by Humayun the eldest of his four sons . At the age of 20 he was appointed the governor of Badakshan. He had contributed his services in the battle of Panipat and Kanwah. After the death of his father he placed himself on the throne of Agra in 1530. Humayun was faced with numerous difficulties. He had to reorganise his army that comprised of mixed races. He faced problems from his brothers, and nobles. The Afghans though defeated by Babur were not vanquished. 

The rise of Sher Khan and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was a matter of concern. Above all he had an empire which had yet to be consolidated and administered in a manner by which his authority would be accepted. In 1531AD he set out on an expedition to besiege the fort of Kalinjar. He was not successful in this mission owing to the Afghan mission towards Jaunpur. In the battle of Dourah in 1532 AD he defeated the Afghans. In 1532 AD he besieged the fort of Chunar under Sher Khan and resorted to mere submission. Between the periHumayunod 1535-36 AD Humayun fought wars with Bahadur Shah. Bahadur Shah had annexed Malwa in 1531 AD, captured the fort of Raisin in 1532 AD and defeated the Sisodia chief of chittor in 1533 AD. He was opposed to the Mughal rule and created the circumstances that turned Humayun against him. On the request of Rani Karnawali of Chittor he accepted the request but fell short of his promises. Bahadur Shah captured Chittor. Humayun now had a reason to attack Bahadur Shah. Humayun now besieged the fort of Mandu and captured it. Bahadur Shah who now fled to Champanir which was also besieged and captured . Humayun captured Ahmedabad and Cambay and finally central Gujarat. Humayun then spent celebrating his victory over Gujarat while his administration lagged. This helped Bahadur Shah who with the local chiefs won Gujarat in 1536 AD. Sher Khan had been building himself against Humayun in Bengal and Bihar . 

By 1536 Sherkhan became the ruler of Bengal and Bihar. In 1537 Humayun attacked the territories of Sher Khan and decided to occupy Bengal. During the period 1538-39 Sher Khan with his military tactics was a threat to Humayun. Sensing his worse position in an area under Sher Khan's control he turned back to Agra. Sher Khan  pursued Humayun engaged himself in the battle of Chausa in 1539. Humayun was defeated and had to flee.

In the year 1540 Humayun after having reached Agra again fought a battle against Sher Khan in the battle of Kannauj. Humaun lost the battle and had to abandon  his throne. He was sheltered by the Raja of Amarkot in Sind. In the year 1542 Akbar was born. He went to Persia and received the grace of the Shah who granted him soldiers to regain his throne. In 1544 Humayun captured Kabul and Khandar. In 1546 he lost Kabul to his brother Kamran. In 1547 he recaptured it. In 1549 Kamran occupied Khan dar. Humayun again had to fight against Kamran who was defeated and blinded. After the death of Sher shah in 1545 his son Islam Shah who ruled upto 1553. After him Muhammad Adil Shah. As a result of the onslaught by Ibrahim Shah and Sikander Shah the Sur empire was broken up. Humayun who now prepared himself to attack India reached Peshwar in 1554 and in 1555. He occupied Lahore and Dipalpur. The same year saw the battle of Machiwara against the Afghans, and the defeat of Sikander Sur in the battle of Sirhind. By July 1555 Humayun reached Delhi where he spend his time in administration of his kingdom. His son Akbar was now slowly rising to power. In 1556 Humayun died in an accidental fall. After the death of Humayun the (mughal rule) history of India saw the rule of greatest of the Mughal rulers, Akbar the great.

 Sher Shah and the Sur Dynasty

The return of Humayun to power in 1555 was preceeded by the a period of rule by Sher Shah who established the Sur dynasty. Sher Shah was the grandson of Ibrahim Sur, who came to India and joined military service under Bahlol Lodi. Ibrahim Lodi gave the Jagirs of Sahsaram, Khawaspur and Tanda to Sher Shah. Sher Shah rose to power and had planned to join Mahmud Lodi in his attempt to revive the Afghan Empire. Circumstances were unfavourable and in 1527 Sher Shah joined the Mughal service and assisted Babur in his conquests in India. Owing to differences of opinions he left the Mughal service in 1528. In 1529 Sher Shah joined Mahmud Lodi. After Mahmud Lodi's abdication,Sher Khan captured South Bihar. In 1529 Mahamud lost the battle of Ghagra but wanted to attempt to capture power in 1530. With the help of  the Afghan chiefs and Sher Shah he marched against Humayun. But Humayun proved a strong rival to Mahmud Lodi. By 1534 after the battle of Surajgarh in which the ruler of Bengal was defeated, Sher Shah became the ruler of Bihar. 

By 1530 Sher Shah captured the whole of Bengal. In the battle of Chausa in 1539 he defeated Humayun. In 1540 Sher Shah fought the battle of Kannauj and defeated Humayun. In 1542 Sher Shah conquered Malwa, and Raisin in 1543. He also brought Multan and Sind and parts of Punjab under him. In his attempt to defeat the Raja of Kalinjar in Budelkhand he was successful but lost his life in 1545.

After his death his son Jalal ruled with the title of Islam Shah till 1553 AD. Islam Shah destroyed the Afghan nobles whom he did not trust. This ultimately led to the downfall of this empire.

Islam Shah was succeeded by his son Firuz who was put to death by Mubariz Khan, the son of Sher Shahi's brother and the brother of Firuz's mother. Mubariz Khan took up the title of Muhammad Adil. He was not a capable ruler. His minister Hemu who was appointed by him rose to importance. Hemu was defeated in the second battle of Panipat and killed. After Hemu the empire witnessed a struggle for independence between five Afghan kings namely Muhammad Shal Adali, Ibrahim Sur, Ahmed Khan sur, Muhammad Khan and Daulat Khan. This internal strife proved advantageous for Humayun who defeated Sikandar Sur and caused the end of the second Afghan rule.

3.Kingdom of south

Vijayanagar Kingdom



Contemporary to the history of North India that witnessed several dynasties invasions reorganization and the consolidation there existed beyond the Vindhyas and the Deccan Plateau the home land of the Dravidians or Dakshinapath. This part of the country also witnessed the rule by various dynasties many of whom ventured into the northern boundaries thus resulting in the study of the Indian history (vague) without a study of the South Indian dynasties vague.

The term South India refers to that parts of India South of the Narmada beyond the Vindhya and Satpura. An extensive forest called Mahankantra lay between the two parts of the mainland and was less ventured into by Early Aryans. The first Aryan establishment is credited to Sage Agasthya who is said to have spread the Aryan religion, language. This was followed by migrations to Dandkaranya (Maharashtra) Vidarbh (Berar) and indeed this affected other parts of the South. The Andhras had established a strong kingdom in the Deccan. After the decline of the Andhras petty kingdom was under the influence of the Guptas. This was under the influence of the Guptas. This empire declined in the early sixth century.

The Vakakakas were followed by the Kadambas. This was a dynasty of Brahmana descent who enjoyed independent power from third to the sixth century. It extended from north to south of Kanara and Mysore. The Kadambas were followed by the Gangas, also called Anhilwada. The Chalukyas are also known as Solankis. Mularaja I besides interested in conquests also was a devout Saiva and had vacated the throne to his son Chamudraja when he had to compromise between religion and conquests and administration. Chamudraja too abdicated  the throne and Vallabharaja came to rule over the Chalukyas. After his death his second son Durlabrja who in turn transferred his power to Bhimaraja I, his nephew. Bhimaraja I ruled for about forty  years from 1021AD. During this period he had to face the onslaught  of Mahand of Ghaznavi in Gujarat. Unable to face him  Bhimaraja I fled from his capital Bhimaraja I recovered his capital and revived the Chalukya rule. He was followed by Karna who ruled fro 1063-1093AD. He is said to have fought some battles against the Paramaras and Chauhans. He was succeeded by Jayamimha Siddharaja. He ruled for over fifty years from 1093-1143AD. During his rule he defeated the Chauhans of Nadol (Jodhpur) and also annexed Saurashtra. After his death Kumarapala a distant relative of Siddharaja seized the throne. Amongst his various military victories over the Paramara princes Abu defeat of Maleikarjuna of Konkan was a remarkable achievement . His rebuilt the Temple of Somnath plundered, and looted by Mahmud of Ghaznavi. He died in 1172AD. In 1178AD Bhimadeva II ruled for about sixty years. This period witnessed the invasion by Muslim sultan of Ghor, then Qutubuddin led another invasion. In 1297AD Allauddin Khilji dispatched a strong army which subdued the Chalukya power in Gujarat. With this came to an end the Hindu rule in Gujarat.

Kalachuris of Chedi

Kalachuris had their kingdom in Madhya Pradesh with their capital at Tripuri near Jablapur. These people had come into conflict with the ruler of Kannauj, Malwa, Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. They also faced the palas and Kalinga rulers. Kokalla I was the founder of this dynasty.

The most important rulers of this dynasty included Gangeyadeva. He tried to make the Chedis the paramount power of Northern India. He was followed by his son Karandeva. The Kalachuris history is said to have become insignificant by 1181 AD.

This was the political situation that prevailed in Northern India before the advent of the Muslims who made this  country as their homeland. Unlike the early rulers who came to loot and plunder the wealth of Indian Kingdoms, many of these invaders settled in various parts of these Indian subcontinent and contributed politically, socially economically besides adding to the Hinduistic cultural heritage in India. With the seeds of Buddhism and Jainism  sown on its soil India was to witness a heaven of culture, language and intermixed populace.


This was one of the most prominent of the dynasties in the Deccan founded by Pulakesin I . He established his power at Valabi (Badami) in the district of Bijapur and built a strong fortress.

Pulakesin I was followed by Kirtivarman I, whose policy of conquest brought Konkan into his empire. His influence extended till Magadha and Bengal. Kirtivarman I was succeeded by Mangalesa assumed the crown. He extended the kingdom of the Chalukyas by conquering the Kalachuris of Northern Decccan and Malwa. A civil war result in Mangalesa's attempt to secure the crown for his son. In this Pulakesin II the son of Kirtivarman defeated and killed Mangalesa in 608AD. Pulakesin II was a contemporary of Harshavardhana of Kannauj and he ruled from 609 to 642AD. He is considered to be the greatest of the Chalukya rulers. The early years of his reign was spent in consolidating his empire. He followed a policy of conquest to subdue the neighbouring powers which formed a danger to his rule. He defeated the Kadambas, subdued the Maurayas of North Konkan, the Malwas and Gujars also. The most striking achievement of his was against that of Harshavardhana who was defeated and compelled to retire beyond Narmada. The Kosala and Kalinga kingdom to came under his influence.

To the south he competed with the Pallavas. Pulakesin's diplomatic effort also deserves praise as he maintained friendly relations with the king of Persia, China. His power was done to its fate by Narasimhavarman I who had allied with the other southern states beyond the Kaveri. The death of Pulakesi II was followed by a decline in the Chalukya power. In the year 656AD his son Vikramaditya I defeated the Pallavas and captured their capital Kanchi. His rule was followed by Vikramaditya II who is said to have defeated the Cholas, the Pandyas and Keralas.

Besides being mere conquerors the Chalukyas were patrons of Art and religion. Though they tolerated other religious like Buddhism and Jainism  yet they promoted Hinduism. The Chalukya power declined with the coming of the Rastrakutas led by a Rastrakuta Chief Dantidurga.


The Rashtrakutas empire was founded by Dantidurga. The empire extended from South Gujarat, Malwa and Baghelkhand in north to Tanjore in the south. He was succeeded by his son Krishna I. Besides being a warrior he was a patron of art and architecture. The rock cut temples at Ellora is such a piece of marvelous art that alone speaks of his patronage. Krishna I was succeeded by Govinda II also called Prabhuta Varsa, who  was an established warrior swooned to pleasure seeking after he ascended the throne. His younger brother Dhruva Nirupama who administered the territories for Govinda II eventually overthrew him in 779AD. Dhurva increased the prestige of the Rashtrakutas. He crossed the Vindhyas and threatened the Gujarat Vatsaraja of Malwa driving him to the desert. He defeated Dharampala of Bengal in the Ganga. Doab, Jamuna region. The Pallava ruler Dhantivarman was defeated by him and both the Pallavas and Gangas accepted his over lordship. He is also said to have defeated the Pratiharas and Palas. Of his four sons Dhurva nominated Govinda III as his successor. GovindaIII also was a powerful ruler. He involved himself in the activities of the northern powers defeating the Pratihara King Nagabhatta II. Both the Palas and ruler of Kannauj submitted to his protection. Govinda III was followed by Amoghavarsha I who ruled from 815 to 877AD. He shifted his capital to Mayankheta in the Nizams dominions in the Hyderabad state. He was involved with the Chalukyas of Vengi, successfully restrained the progress of Bhoja I of Kannauj towards south. Amoghavarsha is compared to fourth greatest monarchs of the world, besides Khalifa of Baghdad, the emperor of China, and the Emperor of Constantinople.

He was a patron of  Digambar sect of Jainism. He abdicated in favour of his son Krishna II.

 Krishna III was the last greatest ruler of the Rashtrakutas. He succumbed to the attacks by the Chalukyas of Kalyani.

Chalukyas of Kalyani

This dynasty was founded in 973 AD by Tailapa II who overthrew the Rashtrakuta and ruled for about twenty four years. The kings of this dynasty was constantly engaged in wars with their neighbours, the Paramaras of Malwa in the north and the Cholas in the south. The invasion by Rajaraja Chola caused much harm to the Chalukya rule.

Vikramaditya was the most important King of the dynasty who ruled from 1076 to    1126 AD. He resisted the Cholas occupying their capital number of times. The Chalukya power declined after him and the throne was usurped by a rebel general Bijala Kalachuria. It was during his reign that his Brahmin minister founded the Lingyat sect. Someshwara IV succeeded in getting the ancestral dominions from the successor of Bijala in 1183 AD.

He was defeated by the Yadhavas of Devgiri and the Hoyashalas of Mysore.

Yadhavas of Devgiri

The Yadhavas are said to have descended from the Mahabharat hero Krishna. In 1187 AD. Bhilame II is said to have wrested the territories to the north of the Krishna from the hands of Someshwara IV. Singhana was one of the most famous ruler of this dynasty. He pushed his authority beyond the Krishna. 

The attack by Allauddin Khilji made its king to pay tribute. In 1309 AD Ram Chandra the last independent King of Deccan submitted to Malik Kafur and became a feudatory. With the execution of Harvala who attempted a revolt in 1318 AD the dynasty of the Yadhavas came to a close.

Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra

They are said to have descended from the western Ghats. The founder of this dynasty was Vishnu Vardhana. He ruled from 1110 to 1140AD. He was a Jain and later converted to Vaishnavism by the famous religious reformer Ramanuja. The next important ruler was Vira Ballala I who ruled from 1172-1215 AD. The Hoyasala's are well known for their style and art of building temples and monuments at Halebid. The ornamentation and sculpture of statues are of high quality. The Hoyasalas succumbed to the attacks of Malik Kafur and Khwaja Haji who plundered the kingdom and its capital turning the Hoyasala to mere local rulers.

The Pallavas

The origin of the Pallavas as claimed by historians are varied and numerous. Some of them relate them to the Persian tribe. Some attribute them to the Parthians of North Western India. Others opine that they were Brahman aristocrats from the north who rendered military service. Other scholars attribute the Pallavas as feudatories of the Satavahnas of the Deccan who belonged to the Naga family. After the dissolution of the Andhras the Pallavas established their supremacy. The Pallavas claimed Brahmana ancestry and patronised Sanskrit learning and also performed the Aswamedha sacrifice.

The first great ruler of the Pallavas was Siva Skandvarman. He is said to have extended the Kingdom southward. Thus the Pallava empire extended between the river Krishna and the Bellary district.

Vishnugopa was the next ruler. He was a contemporary of Samudragupta.

He was succeeded by Simhavishnu who was followed by Mahendra Varman I  in about the beginning of the seventh century AD. He was involved a struggle between the Chalukyas for establishing supremacy in the south. Though Mahendra Varman I professed Jainism initially later he turned into a staunch Saiva. He was well known for his construction of rock cut temples. This proving him to be a patron of art learning, painting, dance and music.

 Mahendra Varman I was succeeded by his son Narasimha Varman I who ruled from (625-45AD). In 642 AD he took over Vatapi (Badami ) from the Chalukyas defeating Pulakesin II. He is said to have sent naval expeditions to Ceylon in support of Manavamna. Pallava art had a boost during his rule the reign of NarasimhaVarman I. He was a great builder and founded the town of Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram which is adorned with the seven rock cut Pagodas. It was during his reign that Hieun-Tsang visited Kanchi in about 642AD. He wrote a remarkable account on the Pallava Kingdom.

 NarasimhaVarman I was succeeded by Mahdendra Varman II. He ruled from 645to 670AD. He was succeeded by Parmeshvara Varman I who ruled for about twenty five years. Narasimha Varman II succeeded him to 695 AD and ruled for about 27 years upto 722 AD. He built the shore temple of Mahabalipuram and also the Kailashnath temple at Kanchi. The defeat of  NarasimhaVarman II at the hands of the Chalukya King Vikramaditya II marked the downfall of the Pallava power.

The last Pallava King was Aparajitha. He was defeated by Aditya Chola towards the end of the 9th century AD.

The Cholas

The Chola Kingdom extended along the coromandel coast from Nellore to Pudukottai. It also included the areas of Mysore and Madras. The Cholas rose to power in the ninth century AD defeating the last Pallava King. This rise to power was under Aditya I. His son Parantaka ruled for forty two years from 907 to 949AD. He was an ambitious warrior warrior king who drove the Pandya king to exile captured Mathura and invaded Ceylon. His successors had  to repeatedly face the onslaught of the Rashtrakutas, Gangas and Pandyas.

It was under Rajaraja the great who ruled from (985-1014AD) that the  Cholas rose as the supreme power  in South India. He pursed a policy of conquest for fourteen years during which he conquered the eastern Chalukya kingdom of Vengi, subdued the  Cheras,conquered territories on the Malabar coast, inflicted defeat on the Pandyas and annexed parts of Ceylon. His alliance through marriage with the ruler of Vengi promoted unity among the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas.

Rajaraja was succeeded by Rajendra CholadevaI who ascended the throne in 1016AD. He ruled for a period of twenty eight years. He further expanded his territories beyond his father's territories. He occupied the islands of Andaman Nicobar, Sumatra, Malaya and the islands  of Pegu with his fleet of ships. In his expedition to the North  in  about  1023 AD he defeated Mahipala the Pala king of Bihar and Bengal. To commemorate his victory he assumed the title of 'Gangaikondai' and built in Trichinopoly district a new capital called, Gangaikonda Cholapuram, which had a magnificient palace, temple and a lake.

His son Rajadhiraja was killed fighting the Chalukyas in about 1052 AD. Adhiraja was the next ruler of the Cholas who was assassinated in 1074AD. He was succeeded by Rajendra Kulottunga I but he formed the line of rulers from the Chalukya cholas.

The power of the Cholas declined in about the 13th century. The rise of the hindu kingdom at Vijayanagar ended the Chola dynasty.

The Pandyas

The Pandyas ruled over the territories of Madura. Tinnevelly and parts of Travancore. It is reputed to be most ancient of the Tamil states. The Pandyas rose to power in the seventh century AD. The rule of the Pandyas is said to be initiated by Kandungori. His son Maruvarman Avani Sulamani came into conflict with the Pallavas. A Pandya king named Arikesri is also said to have defeated the Pallavas in the eight century .They aligned with the Cholas and defeated the Pallavas. They carried on frequent wars with ceylon. In the eleventh century they were compelled to submit to the supremacy of the Cholas but in the thirteenth century they asserted their independence and under Jalavarman Sundara Pandya who ruled from 1251-1272 AD . They became the leading power in the South. A civil war that broke out among the claimant of the throne is said to have sealed the fate of this kingdom. This resulted in the Muslim expedition to the south which resulted in plundering and looting of the territories. The Pandya kingdom was absorbed to the kingdom of Vijayanagar in the 16th century.


The kingdom of the Cheras consisted of the state of Travancore, Cochin and parts of the Malabar. They are said to have belonged to the Dravidian race. Their proximity to the sea favoured trade with Romans. Association with the Jews were also established with the permission for a colony by the Chera king Bhaskara Ravi Varma. This small territories never experienced the conquest  of the Muslims and remained independent till the British period.

4.Europeans in India


Indian exposure to the Europeans was a result of the discovery of a sea route to India. Old trade routes existed since the ancient times. The invasion of Alexander boosted trade contacts outside India.  Opening of new trade routes, through Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Caspian Sea till the Black sea also favoured European entry into India. Another trade route was through Persia and Syria till Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The route through the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and the Red Sea was the most convenient of all. Through these routes goods from India went to Europe and back. The rise of the Arabs witnessed a block of the trade in the 7th century. Besides this the Turks were gaining grounds over the Arabs. The shortage in the supply of Asian goods caused a rise of price of these commodities in Europe. This forced the European countries to seek new sea routes to India. 

The Portughese

Owing to the favorable position of Portugal with regards to access to sea and its experiences inVasco da Gama sea-faring, a new sea route to India, west of Africa was discovered. Encouragement by Prince Henry of Portugal who loved navigation and exploration also further boosted the thrill to seek newer lands. By 1481 Bartholomew Diaz reach the cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa. In 1497 Vasco da Gama another Portuguese navigator sailed along the Atlantic coast of Africa rounded the cape of Good Hope and reached Mozambique in the Indian Ocean.

On April, 1498 he reached the western coast of India at Calicut in the south Indian state of Kerala.

He was received by the Zamorin ruler of Calicut who permitted establishment of trading centres at Calicut, Cochin and Cannanore. Fuelled by the instigation of the Arabs the Zamorins attacked the Portuguese but was defeated. The Portuguese thus became supreme in the west coast. Almeida was the first Portuguese Governor in India. He was determined to make Portugal powerful at sea. From 1509 to 1515 Albequerque became the second governor of the Indian territory held by Portugal. He aimed at occupying places for trade, developing a group of intermixed population who would rightfully claim possession of the Portuguese territory in India.  Building of forts was another effort of his to consolidate the Portuguese position in India. In 1510 he conquered Goa from the sultan of Bijapur. He established a factory at Colombo in Ceylon and fort at Cochin. With his able administration he increased the Portuguese influence in India. In 1534 the Portuguese occupied Bassein and in 1538 Daman too. In the same year the Portuguese started constructing a factory neat Hugli. After a century the Portuguese power began to decline owing to factors like incompetent successors of Albequerque, defective administration, religions intolerance, resistance from the Mughals, lack of financial support from home, conditions arising of the union of Portugal with Spain under Philip II in 1580. Besides this the inefficient trading methods, discovery of Brazil and above all the emergence of strong European competitions especially the Dutch English also hastened the Portuguese decline.

The Dutch

After the Portuguese, the Dutch rose to power in the South East Asia. Their contact with India was through settlements at Nagapatnam and Cinsura in Bengal. The Dutch East India Company declined under the pressure from the English. The British navy was much superior to the Dutch and finally the English controlled the Dutch possessions in India.


In the sixteenth century the English started trade with the east. The English had to pay high prices for goods bought from the east. Lured by the Portuguese profits the English too wished to have their share of wealth and profits.  Attaining power in this area would result in getting goods at prices they decide. Besides this the defeat of the Spanish Armada had made England the mistress of the seas. In 1500 a group of merchants under the Chairman ship of Lord Mayor formed an association in London to trade with India. In 1600 Queen Elizabeth granted a charter to the governor at a company of merchants to trade freely with the countries of the east. Voyages were made to South East Asia to trade in spices. Attention towards India was diverted due to the Dutch influence in the Spice islands and getting raw materials for the English. The vast Indian mainland could be a market for the finished goods. The voyage to India was led by Captain Hawkins. He landeJahangird at the west coast of Surat and succeeded to get some trade concession for the company from Emperor Jahangir. He also secured permission to set up a factory at Surat. The Portuguese influence in the Mughal Court proved a obstacle to the English trade. In 1612 Captain Best defeated the Portuguese fleet near Surat thus reducing their influence. He secured permission for building of a factory at Surat. In 1615 King James I of England sent Sir Thomas Roe  as his ambassador to the court of Jahangir, and secured permission for the company to set up factories. Thus factories were set up at Ahmedabad, Broach and Agra.

In 1661 tThomas Roehe company obtained Bombay from Charles II and converted it to a flourishing centre of trade. By 1687, its was the most well established settlement of the Company on the west coast of India. In 1611 factories were set up on the east coast at Masaulipatam. In 1540 Fancis Day built a fortified factory called Fort St. George beside which the town of Madras flourished. English settlements rose in Orissa and Bengal. In 1633, in the Mahanadi delta of Hariharpur at Balasore in Orissa, factories were set up. In 1650 Gabriel Boughton an employee of the Company obtained a license for trade in Bengal. An English factory was set up in 1651 at Hugli. Various factors besides the lack of a political authority in India encouraged the company to unleash a vigorous policy of trade. The disintegrating Mughal empire had excited the English. At a petty pretext during the rule of Aurangazeb, the British brought a fleet from England and attacked Hugli. Aurangazeb attacked the English settlements and, captured their settlements at Patna, Cassim Bazar, Masaulipatam and Vizagapatanam. The superior English navy avoided the progress of the Mughals and found it wise to conclude peace on the conditions imposed by Aurangazeb. In 1690 Job Charnock established a factory. In 1698 the factory was fortified and called Fort William. The villages of Sutanati, Kalikata and Gobindpore were developed into a single area called Calcutta. In 1717 Emperor Farukhiyar permitted duty free trade. In Gujarat and Madras too they secured concessions. The  company at Bombay minted rupees to be circulated in India.

Owing to the economic factors at England and the discredited submission to the terms  of Aurangazeb, a rival trading company was established called General Society. A compromise between the two companies on common trade saved the East India Company in 1702.




At a period when Europe witnessed an upsurge in discoveries and  colonization, the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English were on their mission for contacts with India . France who competed with England in many respects also took to installing trade contacts with India and the east. In 1611 Louis XII granted monopoly to a company to pursue their quest, but did not achieve any progress. In 1664 Louis XIV granted another permission to start trade with India. The trade with India was a matter of prestige as the European politics was dominated by rivalries in the eighteenth century. In India Anglo French conflict started with the Austrian war of succession which ended in the seven years war. Pondicherry was the hub of French settlements. Other French factories and settlements were at Masulipatanam, Karikal, Mahi, Surat and Chandernagore. The struggle for establishing supremacy in trade resulted in wars between the English and the French in the Deccan. The first Carnatic war was fought between 1746-48. The second Carnatic war was fought between 1748-54 and the third Carnatic war was between 1758-63. This was the war that sealed the fateof the French possessions in India. Owing to Commercial superiority and better financial position, private ownership of the English company and support by the British government, the East India Company flourished in India. Superiority of the English officers, besides this the French continental preoccupations, the superior English navy and the impact of English domination in Bengal, the recall of Duplex and the blunders of Count de Lally contributed to the French failure in India. Thus the struggle for colonial supremacy resulted the English having overcome the European obstacle. Little did then one realize that this was the beginning of a diplomatic policy that would reign supreme in India for the next two centuries.

The British  with their superior naval power support from home were the next who like the numerous invaders and adventurers of the past would establish their dominion in India. The diplomatic moves of East India Company were clever. The favorable conditions created by the disintegration of the Mughal empire invited the English to seek political power in India. The political aspirations of the company bore fruit from Bengal. Owing to the incompetence of Siraj-ud daula the Nawab of Bengal, he had lost the loyalty of his nobles who conspired against him. The misuse of the privileges given to the English and the fortification of the settlement invoked the displeasure of the Nawab who ordered their demolition. The inhuman act of the Nawabs subordinate resulting in the Black hole tragedy resulted in involvement of Robert Clive and Admiral Watson in an attempt to subdue the Nawab. After the capture of Calcutta by Robert Clive he entered into a treaty which proved the only advantageous solution for both at present. The diplomatic designs of Clive bore fruit when he learnt of the discontented nobles of the Nawabs who were ready to go against the authority of the Nawab .On the 23rd of the June 1757 the armies of the Nawab Siraj-ud-daula and Robert Clive met in a battle at Plassey. The Nawab's nobles who deflected as decided with the English did not support the Nawab, leading to his defeat. This was the major achievement of the English that was to act as the foundation of British rule in India. The English put Mir Jafar as the Nawab with the jurisdiction of government under the Company's control. The company got the territories around Calcutta. It raised the prestige of the company who now was able to use this to influence the French and their support at home. It also started a political gamble by the company officials who now conspired against Mir Jafar and promised the throne to Mir qasim in return for money. Mir jafar was disposed by the English and  Mir qasim was given the administration of Bengal. Mir qasim knew well the designs of the English. He was an able administrator and sought to improve the finance of the state, while meeting the demands of the company. His quarrels with the company over duties and articles and trade exposed his intention to break off from the yoke of British dominance. This ultimately resulted in the battle of Buxar in 1764. A fierce battle resulted. The superior military power of the English had confirmed the English victory and thus they became the masters of Bengal and now were the sole contenders for the control of the whole country.

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